Smartphone research factors to new methods to measure meals consumption: Methodology provides potential for exact means to gauge meals insecurity, environmental stress
A crew of researchers has devised a technique utilizing smartphones as a way to measure meals consumption — an method that additionally provides new methods to foretell bodily well-being.
“We have harnessed the increasing presence of cell and smartphones across the globe to measure meals consumption over time with precision and with the potential to seize seasonal shifts in food regimen and meals consumption patterns,” explains Andrew Reid Bell, an assistant professor in New York College’s Division of Environmental Research and an writer of the paper, which seems within the journal Environmental Analysis Letters.
Meals consumption has historically been measured by questionnaires that require respondents to recall what they ate over the earlier 24 hours, to maintain detailed consumption information over a three-to-four-day interval, or to point their typical consumption patterns over one-week to one-month intervals. As a result of these strategies ask for members to report behaviors over prolonged intervals of time, they elevate considerations in regards to the accuracy of such documentation.
Furthermore, these types of information assortment do not seize “real-time” meals consumption, stopping analyses that immediately hyperlink diet with bodily exercise and different measures of well-being — a notable shortcoming given the estimated two billion folks on the planet who’re affected by reasonable to extreme meals insecurity.
Lastly, whereas meals consumption in addition to meals manufacturing have a big affect on the atmosphere, “we don’t but have the instruments to research meals consumption in the identical methods as we do for environmental variables and meals manufacturing,” write the research’s authors, who additionally embody Mary Killilea, a scientific professor in NYU’s Division of Environmental Research, and Mari Roberts, an NYU graduate scholar. “It is a crucial hole, because it hampers our understanding of how environmental shocks carry via to develop into consumption shocks to households, communities, or areas and the way responses to those shocks feed again into additional environmental stress.”
The crew, which additionally included researchers from the College of Minnesota, Imperial School London, the Palli Karma-Sahayak Basis, and Duke Kunshan College, turned to smartphones as a substitute means to trace meals consumption and its relationship to bodily exercise.
“Entry to cell units is altering how we collect info in some ways, all the way in which right down to the opportunity of reaching respondents on their very own time, on their very own units, and in their very own areas,” explains Bell.
Individuals included almost 200 adults in Bangladesh who reported which amongst a set of common meals varieties (e.g., nuts and seeds, oils, greens, leafy greens, fruits, meat and eggs, fish, and many others.) their family had consumed within the instantly previous 24 hours in addition to which particular meals objects throughout the extra common meals varieties that they had consumed (e.g., rice, wheat, barley, maize, and many others.) and the way a lot they ate. Lastly, members reported the age, gender, literacy, training stage, occupation, peak, and weight of every member of their family and in addition to the next measures of their very own bodily well-being: whether or not they might arise on their very own after sitting down, whether or not they might stroll for five kilometers (3.1 miles), and whether or not they might carry 20 liters (5.Three gallons) of water for 20 meters (65.6 toes). All the info was entered by the members on their telephones utilizing a data-collection app, with response charges as excessive as 90 p.c.
“Meals stress is dynamic, and other people’s wants — significantly for expectant moms and younger kids — can change shortly,” explains Bell. “Reaching respondents in actual time permits us to map these adjustments in a approach typical approaches do not seize.”
“Mainstreaming information assortment by respondents themselves, via their very own units, can be transformative for understanding meals safety and for empirical social science on the whole,” he provides. “It could imply their voices being counted via participation on their very own time and phrases, and never solely by giving up a half-day or longer of labor. For researchers, it might imply having connections to rural communities and an image of their well-being on a regular basis, not simply when sources stream to a spot in response to disaster, doubtlessly unearthing an understanding of resilience within the face of stressors that has by no means earlier than been potential.”
The authors acknowledge considerations about smartphone availability in each rural and impoverished communities. Nevertheless, they level to latest research that present how digital applied sciences, equivalent to cell phones and satellites, have provided new methods for rural populations in creating international locations to entry financial savings, credit score, and insurance coverage.
“We now see cell phone penetration virtually in every single place on the planet, with smartphone and cell broadband subscriptions following the identical pattern,” says Bell.